Silicon Valley, Explained

Steve Jobs died on October 5, 2011, before this book was conceived. His quotes in this chapter (and the ones that follow) come from an April 1995 interview conducted by Daniel Morrow for the Smithsonian Institution; a Playboy interview conducted by David Sheff in 1985; a 1994 interview for the Silicon Valley Historical Association; and a WGBH Boston interview from 1990. Gordon Moore’s quote is taken from a YouTube video, “Gordon Moore About Moore’s Law,” posted in December 2014. Don Valentine’s quote is from an interview on Sequoia Capital’s website.

The Big Bang

Doug Engelbart died on July 2, 2013, before this book was conceived. His quotes have been gathered from a number of sources: “Engelbart and the Dawn of Interactive Computing,” an event hosted by SRI in December 2008; “Engelbart’s Unnished Revolution,” a symposium produced by Stanford University Libraries and the Institute for the Future in December 1998; a Smithsonian Institute interview by Jon Eklund, conducted in May 1994; and two interviews by Judy Adams and Henry Lowood of Stanford, the rst conducted in December 1986 and the second in April 1987. Steve Jobs’s quotes in this chapter and others are from Steve Jobs: The Lost Interview conducted by Robert Cringely, and the 1990 documentary Memory & Imagination: New Pathways to the Library of Congress by Michael Lawrence and Julian Krainen. Ken Kes- ey’s “next thing after acid” quote can be found in John Markoff’s excel- lent history, What the Dormouse Said.

Ready Player One (atari):

Ted Dabney died before I had a chance to interview him. His quotes are taken from the RetroGaming Roundup podcast #24, October 2010, conducted by Mike Kennedy, Mike James, and Scott Schreiber, as well as the Computer History Museum’s 2012 oral history of Ted Dabney. Bob Metcalfe’s quotes here and throughout the book are from the Computer History Museum’s 2007 oral history. Steve Mayer’s quote is from the ANTIC “Interview 65” podcast.

The Time Machine

Charles Simonyi’s quotes in this chapter and others are from the Computer History Museum’s 2008 oral history. Steve Russell’s quote is from Dean Takahashi’s January 2011 interview: “Steve Russell Talks About His Early Video Game Spacewar!” Larry Tesler’s quotes in this chapter and others are from the Computer History Museum’s 2013 oral history.


Steve Wozniak’s quotes in this chapter and others are drawn from an in-depth personal interview that he gave to me, as well as two archival sources: a December 2010 interview by Patrick Betdavid and a Game Informer interview from June 2013. Steve Jobs’s “enlightenment” quote comes from Walter Isaacson’s denitive book Steve Jobs. Mike Markkula’s quotes are from the illuminating 2011 documentary Something Ventured. Arthur Rock’s quote is from Stanford University’s “Silicon Genesis” project, 2002.

Towel Designers

Ron Milner’s quotes are from the ANTIC “Interview 74” podcast. Larry Kaplan’s quotes are from an undated interview posted on Digital Press, the video game database. Ray Kassar’s quotes here and elsewhere are from Tristan Donovan’s April 2011 Gamasutra interview.

PARC Opens the Kimono

The quotes from Dean Hovey, Jim Sachs, and Jim Yurchenco come from Alex Soojung-Kim Pang’s “Making the Macintosh” history project for the Stanford University Library. Bill Atkinson’s quotes here and in other chapters are from Bill Moggridge’s Designing Interactions, 2007.

Hello, I’m Macintosh

Steve Jobs’s “shithead” quote can be found in Walter Isaacson’s Steve Jobs. Jef Raskin’s “king of France” quote is from Michael Moritz’s The Return to the Little Kingdom. The quotes from Mike Murray, Joanna Hoffman, and Andy Cunningham are from a panel discussion held at the Computer History Museum in 2004: “The Macintosh Marketing Story: Fact and Fiction, 20 Years Later.” Burrell Smith’s quote is from the May 1985 Whole Earth Review. Lee Clow’s quotes are from a video interview by Ann-Christine Diaz, published in 2012 by Advertising Age: “The Art of the Super Bowl Ad: Lee Clow on How Apple’s ‘1984’ Almost Didn’t Happen—The Real Story on Why the Spot Only Aired Once.” Ridley Scott’s quotes are from an Apple promotional video that was distributed to Apple dealers in 1984. John Sculley’s remark was made in 2011 at a celebration of the thirtieth anniversary of the IBM PC in Boca Raton and reported by the South Florida Business Journal.

What Information Wants

Ted Nelson’s quote is in Michael Schrage’s November 1984 Washington Post story on the rst Hackers Conference. Bill Atkinson’s quotes are from an August 2012 Berkeley Cybersalon event on the creation and legacy of Hypercard. Doug Carlson’s, Robert Woodhead’s, and Steve Wozniak’s quotes from the Hackers Conference are as reported in the May 1985 Whole Earth Review.

The Whole Earth ’Lectronic Link

Ram Dass’s quotes are from two Seva Foundation videos: “Ram Dass Talks About Neem Karoli Baba, Larry Brilliant, Service, and the Birth of Seva Foundation” and “An Evening with Ram Dass: Seva Foundation Benet 1985.”

Reality Check

Mitch Altman’s quotes here and elsewhere are from the Hackertrips video blog post on YouTube: “An Interview with Mitch Altman.”

From Insanely Great to Greatly Insane

John Sculley’s quotes were made at the Engage 2015 conference in Prague, as reported by Jim Edwards for Business Insider. Nicholas Negroponte’s quote is from a November 1995 interview in Wiredmagazine.

Toy Stories

Ed Catmull’s quotes are from the Computer History Museum’s 2013 oral history; a 2014 talk he gave at Stanford’s eCorner lecture series; and a 1995 documentary, The Making of Toy Story. John Lasseter’s quotes are taken from: an October 1996 interview by Charlie Rose; a May 2006 Fortune magazine prole, “Pixar’s Magic Man”; a June 2011 story in Enter- tainment Weekly, “John Lasseter on Pixar’s Early Days and How Toy Story Couldn’t Have Happened Without Tim Burton”; and a June 2009 interview by Aubrey Day in Total Film magazine. Joss Whedon’s quote is from the book Joss Whedon: Conversations. George Lucas’s quote is from the book To Innity and Beyond!: The Story of Pixar Animation Studios.

Jerry Garcia’s Last Words

Marc Andreessen’s quotes are from Henry Blodget’s 2009 video interview in Business Insider and Chris Anderson’s April 2012 interview in Wired.

The Check Is in the Mail

Pierre Omidyar’s quotes are from a 2000 interview given to the American Academy of Achievement.

The Shape of the Internet

Larry Page’s and Sergey Brin’s quotes are from a largely unpublished series of interviews they gave to John Ince while he was working on a story for Upside in January 2000. Additional quotes from Page come from an interview he gave to Fortune in May 2008, from the commencement speech he gave at the University of Michigan in 2009, a 2002 talk he gave at Stanford’s eCorner lecture series, and from an interview with the San Francisco Chronicle in December 2000. Additional quotes from Brin come from an interview given to the American Academy of Achievement in 2000, a November 2000 MIT Technology Review interview, remarks at a December 2002 O’Reilly conference on digital infrastructure, and a September 2004 Playboy interview. Marissa Mayer’s Burning Man quote is found in The Google Story by David A. Vise and Mark Malseed. Eric Schmidt’s quote is from a 2014 interview given at the 92nd Street Y in New York City.

Free as in Beer

Most of Shawn Fanning’s quotes, and a few of Sean Parker’s, are from the 2013 documentary Downloaded and from an interview at the movie’s premiere conducted by Reggie Ugwu of Billboard magazine. Additional Fanning quotes are from an SFGate podcast posted in May 2009. Hank Barry would like the reader to know that he is speaking as an individual and that his views do not necessarily represent the views of his firm, Sidley Austin LLP. Lars Ulrich’s quotes are from a live chat hosted by Yahoo! in May 2000, and an interview on HuffPost Live with Mike Sacks in September 2013. David Boies’s quotes are from an interview in Wiredin October 2000.

The Dot Bomb

Peter Thiel’s comments were made in the spring of 2012 in a series of lectures at Stanford and recorded in the notes of Blake Masters, who was in the audience.

The Return of the King

Larry Ellison’s remarks were made on a special August 2013 episode ofCBS This Morning, “An Hour with Larry Ellison,” and in the commencement speech he gave at the University of Southern California in 2016.

I’m Feeling Lucky

Paul Buchheit’s quotes are found in the book Founders at Work by Jessica Livingston. Susan Wojcicki’s quotes can be found in Jefferson Graham’s USA Today story, “The House That Helped Build Google,” in July 2007.

I’m CEO...Bitch

Mark Zuckerberg’s quotes come from a guest lecture he gave to Harvard’s “Introduction to Computer Science” class in 2005, from an interview he gave to the Harvard Crimson in February that same year, and from Y Combinator’s Startup School event in 2007. Dustin Moskovitz’s quotes were taken from a keynote address given to the Alliance of Youth Movements Summit in December 2008, and from David Kirkpatrick’s authoritative history, The Facebook Effect. David Choe’s comments were made on The Howard Stern Show in March 2016. Steve Jobs made his remarks to his biographer, Walter Isaacson. The interview was aired on 60 Minutes soon after Jobs died in 2011.

Purple People Eater

Phil Schiller, Scott Forstall, and Christopher Stringer testied under oath in the Apple v. Samsung case in August 2012. Steve Jobs’s comments were made onstage at the All Things D conference in June 2010. Matt Rogers’s quotes were made to Kevin Rose in episode 21 of “Foundation,” Rose’s series of video interviews with technology moguls. Eddy Cue’s quote is borrowed from Brent Schlender and Rick Tetzeli’s Becoming Steve Jobs, the Steve Jobs biography.


Noah Glass’s comment was made during a talk at the Berkeley School of Journalism in March 2005. Tony Stubblebine shared his memories on Quora. Mark Zuckerberg’s “clown car” quote is as reported in Nick Bilton’s terric book Hatching Twitter.

The Endless Frontier

Larry Page’s speculation about a brain implant can be found in In the Plex, Steven Levy’s sweeping history of Google.